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Improved Superconductivity with Periodic Nano/Micro Patterning


Superconductors are materials that can conduct electricity without resistance. Their superconducting behavior is observed at and below very low temperatures (Transition Temperature, TC), generally under cryogenic conditions; all economically relevant superconductors have cooled down far below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. Conventional superconductors such as NbTi, NbSn3, Nb, and All are used in sensing applications and magnets for nuclear magnetic imaging instruments. However, the costs of cryogenic cooling make most technologies based on superconductors very expensive and a more widespread application. Researchers at Leiden University have invented a method to improve superconductivity in these and other materials.

Technology Overview

This technology is based on a new approach to engineer/improve superconducting materials: deliberate alterations of the mesoscale structure of the material are realized by using nano and microfabrication techniques, resulting into a controlled modification of the phononic and electronic structure of thin films. This allows the coupling of the electrons with the phonon modes at higher temperatures, with the consequent formation of Cooper pairs and the onset of supercurrents. The physics model that underlies this technology shows how such periodic structures have to be designed to best improve superconductivity (Figure 1) (available at

Details and State of Development:

- While the fabrication technology is well established and the underlying physics model has passed through peer-review scrutiny, its experimental validation and optimisation are ongoing at the moment of writing.

Figure 1: Possible fabrication methods and realizations. a. Modern nanofabrication tools allow to make periodic patterns. b. Different shapes are possible. c. Different layers of (insulating) materials on top of the thin films have different effects. d. Stacking allows for 3D materials. e,f. Smaller patterning are possible using Moire engineering or single atom manipulation.


1. Superconducting wires in MRI and NMR instruments.
2. Sensors, including for astronomy and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID).


The technology is available for licensing (for commercial use or for evaluation and / or co-development).

Keywords: superconductors, transition temperature, nanopatterning, phononic structure, electronic structure, NMR, MRI

Key benefits

  • ​Reduced energy budget for superconductor-based devices.
  • Compatibility with existing micro/nanofabrication methods.
  • No need for engineering new materials compositions.

Luris reference number


Patent status

Patent protection has been applied for.

Data available on request

More information can be found on a recent publication (available at